Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer

The prostate is a small gland that forms part of a man’s reproductive system. It is about the size of a golf ball and surrounds the tube that empties urine from the bladder, called the urethra.

It is normal for the prostate to swell as a man gets older, but if the swelling gets too big, it can block the urethra, making it difficult to pass urine. This swelling is called benign prostate enlargement or BPE.

BPE is not cancer. In most cases, BPE is not a serious health concern and is a treatable condition.


What does the prostate do?

The prostate makes a thick white fluid that mixes with sperm from your testicles to make semen. It also produces a protein called prostate-specific antigen or PSA. PSA helps reduce the thickness of semen, so it is thinner and more fluid.

Male reproductive system
Pathway of sperm

Do men have hormones?

Hormones are chemicals that carry messages around the body. In men, a hormone called testosterone is made by the testicles and controls how the prostate works. Testosterone is responsible for a man’s sex drive and getting an erection. For this reason, you may hear testosterone called a “sex hormone”.

Do trans women have a prostate?

Yes. If you are a trans woman or a non-binary individual assigned male at birth, you have a prostate.
Some trans women may have had genital reconstructive, or gender reassignment, surgery. Although converting a man’s anatomy to a woman’s anatomy involves removing the penis and the testicles, this surgery does not remove the prostate.
If you are taking hormones or testosterone blockers, these may reduce the risk of prostate cancer by lowering your testosterone levels. It is still very important to have a prostate check if you have any known symptoms or are at increased risk of prostate cancer.
We know it can be a difficult conversation to have, but we encourage you to speak to your doctor.

What increases the risk of getting prostate cancer?

Four main risk factors increase a man’s chance of developing prostate cancer. If you feel you have any risk factors for developing prostate cancer, you should speak to your doctor.
Age is the biggest risk factor for prostate cancer. In Europe, prostate cancer is commonly diagnosed in men over 65, but it can happen in younger men.
Black men have twice the risk of developing prostate cancer than white men. Asian men, on the other hand, have a lower risk. It is unknown why a man’s ethnicity or race increases or lowers his prostate cancer risk.
Family history
We all inherit our genes from our parents. Some prostate cancers may be linked to genes passed from generation to generation by either parent. Although a man’s risk of developing prostate cancer increases if he has a family history, most men who get prostate cancer do not have a family history.
Genes are made of DNA. They contain “information” that determines our traits. For example, having red hair is a genetic trait passed from generation to generation. If you have close family members diagnosed with prostate cancer under the age of 60 and are concerned about your risk, speak to your doctor.
It is well-known that eating a balanced diet and doing regular physical exercises keeps you healthy. A balanced diet includes eating plenty of vegetables, fruit, and fibre, and limited red meat, processed foods, high-fat foods, sugar, and alcohol. Men who are very overweight or obese may increase their risk of developing prostate cancer.
Processed foods
Processed foods include ready meals, takeaways, savoury snacks, cakes, and biscuits.
Obese means you are very overweight, with a lot of body fat, which puts you at risk of serious health problems.

What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer may cause no signs or symptoms in its early stages. More advanced prostate cancer may cause signs and symptoms, such as:
  • difficulty passing urine
  • a less powerful stream of urine
  • blood in the urine
  • blood in the semen
  • bone pain (commonly in the back)
  • losing weight without trying
  • problems controlling bowel movements
  • erection problems called erectile dysfunction
Difficulty passing urine and a less powerful stream of urine are commonly caused by an enlarged prostate, called benign prostate enlargement, or BPE (previously called benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH). BPE is not cancer and is a treatable condition.
If you or a family member are experiencing any of the above symptoms, it is important to get a prostate check. It can feel frightening when you experience symptoms that may be cancer, but it is always best to get checked.

How should I approach my doctor?

If you feel frightened, anxious, or embarrassed about prostate problems, it is always best to speak to your doctor.
If you have previously visited the doctor but not managed to talk about your symptoms, now is the time to speak up. It is important to find the words that are right for you. We have listed some potential “icebreakers” for you below. Why not say them aloud and see which one feels the most natural to you. You may even find rehearsing what you want to say boosts your confidence and comfort level.
  • I want to ask you about a men’s health issue
  • I’m having some problems that I want to talk to you about
  • I think I might have a prostate problem
  • I’m having some problems peeing/weeing
  • I’m having some problems getting/keeping an erection
  • My friend/brother/father/uncle has been diagnosed with prostate cancer
  • I’m worried about prostate cancer
  • I’ve had blood in my pee/wee/semen
Just remember, your doctor is a healthcare professional. He/she will listen to you and discuss the best way forward.

Prostate cancer treatments


Monitoring prostate cancer

Monitoring means your doctor will keep a close eye on you rather than recommending treatment straight away. You may feel fearful or angry about monitoring your cancer rather than receiving treatment. But all treatments have side effects, and your doctor will not recommend treatment if he or she believes the risks outweigh any benefit you might get.

There are two types of monitoring. Check with your doctor which type you are being offered.

Active surveillance
The aim of active surveillance is to avoid unnecessary treatments. If your doctor has recommended active surveillance, you have low-risk prostate cancer, which has been found at an early stage. Your doctor does not anticipate that the cancer will cause you any immediate symptoms or problems.

Active surveillance may continue for many years if your prostate risk does not increase, but it requires you to follow a scheduled regime which includes PSA tests, prostate checks, as well as an MRI and/or repeated prostate biopsies.

Up to half of men on active surveillance never need treatment. If the tests show that your tumour is growing or changing at any stage, you will be offered treatment. Your treatment options, such as surgery, will aim to cure the cancer.

Watchful waiting
The aim of watchful waiting is to delay or to avoid the side effects of treatment. If your doctor has recommended watchful waiting, you may not be well enough to have surgery or radiotherapy. It could also be because your doctor does not anticipate that the cancer will cause any problem in your lifetime. Your doctor will prepare a follow-up plan with you, including what checks and tests you will have and how often.

Some men on watchful waiting may still need treatment. If the tests show that your tumour is growing at any stage, or the cancer cells have started to spread to other organs, you will be offered treatment. The treatment offered will aim to control the spread of the cancer and manage any symptoms you have.


Radical prostatectomy

You may be offered an operation to remove your prostate, called a radical prostatectomy.

There are 3 different ways of removing the prostate: laparoscopic or “keyhole” surgery, robot-assisted keyhole surgery, or open surgery. Your doctor will discuss the surgery method, which is most appropriate for you.

A radical prostatectomy is a major operation, and each method has its risks. The aim of the surgery is to cure the cancer.


Laparoscopic surgery: During laparoscopic, or keyhole, surgery, a surgeon will remove the prostate using several small cuts in your tummy. The surgeon will also use a small camera, called a laparoscope, to help them see the prostate clearly during the procedure.

Robot-assisted “keyhole” surgery: Robot-assisted keyhole surgery is done by trained surgeons, so it is only available in certain hospitals. It is sometimes called RARP or RALP. During the procedure, the surgical equipment is attached to robotic arms, which are controlled by the surgeon.

Open surgery: Open surgery involves one large cut into your tummy or the area between your scrotum and back passage.


Hormone therapy

What is hormone therapy?

Testosterone causes prostate cancer to grow, so the most common way of controlling how much testosterone there is in your body is to have hormone therapy. This is also known as androgen deprivation therapy or ADT. Your doctor may recommend hormone therapy to reduce the amount of testosterone in your body. It is usually available as injections, implants, tablets, or a nasal spray.

Some men may have hormone therapy before, during, or after radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Other men may only have hormone therapy. Hormone therapy is used for all prostate cancer stages, but it is the main treatment for men with advanced prostate cancer.

Your doctor will discuss your treatment options with you.

Testosterone: A hormone, or chemical, made by the testicles which controls how the prostate works.

Advanced prostate cancerCancer that has spread from the prostate to other parts of the body through the bloodstream.

LHRH agonists
LHRH agonists are usually given as injections or implants. They work by blocking messages from the brain that tell your testicles to make testosterone. Treatment with these drugs is sometimes called “chemical” or “medical castration.” This is because the effect on the body is the same as having your testicles removed.

Common LHRH agonists are shown below. All drugs have a generic name and a name given by the pharmaceutical company that produces them. This is called a trade name.

LHRH: Luteinising hormone-releasing hormone.

Generic name Trade name(s)
Buserelin Suprefact®
Goserelin Zoladex®, Reseligo®
Leuprorelin or Leuprolide Eligard®, Staladex®, Enanton®, Prostap®, Lucrin®, Lutrate®
Triptorelin Decapeptyl SR®, Salvacyl®, Diphereline®, Gonapeptyl®

Your doctor will discuss which LHRH agonists treatment is recommended for you.

It is common for the body to produce a testosterone surge when you first start LHRH agonist treatment. This is called a “flare”. Flares can make your symptoms worse to begin with, and they may cause the tumour to grow quickly for a short time. Because of this, you will also be given tablets to take, known as anti-androgens. These tablets stop testosterone from reaching the cancer cells, so they cannot grow.

LHRH antagonists
LHRH antagonists work in a slightly different way to LHRH agonists. They prevent the testicles from making testosterone but do not cause flares as LHRH agonists do, so you will not need to take anti-androgen tablets.

Degarelix (Firmagon®) is the LHRH antagonist treatment available in Europe. It is given as a monthly injection under the skin.

Some men may be offered an operation to remove their testicles. This is called an orchidectomy, or surgical castration. An orchidectomy is a straightforward operation. It is usually done using a local anaesthetic, but it can be done under a ‘general’ anaesthetic. With both types of anaesthesia, you will not feel anything during the surgery. If you have a ‘local’ you will be awake the whole time and if you have a ‘general’ you will be asleep during the procedure. Once done, an orchidectomy cannot be reversed, so you need to be sure this is the right treatment option for you.

Anti-androgens are a group of drugs that stop testosterone from entering the cancer cells, preventing the cells from growing. They are usually given alongside other hormone treatments or radiotherapy. But you may be offered anti-androgen treatment on its own to see if it will shrink your tumour.

If you are prescribed anti-androgen tablets, you will also need to have regular blood tests. This is to check your levels of blood cells and how well your liver and kidneys are working.

Your doctor will discuss which anti-androgen drug best manages your stage of prostate cancer. You may want to know the names of the different anti-androgen drugs that may be available to you. Please be aware that some of the drugs listed may not be available across the whole of Europe.

Generic name Trade name(s)
Bicalutamide Casodex®, Bicalutamid®
Flutamide Flutasin®, Flutamid®
Nilutamide Anandron®
Cyproterone Cyprostat®
Apalutamide Erleada®, Erlyand®
Darolutamide Nubeqa®
Enzalutamide Xtandi®

Abiraterone (Zytiga®, Yonsa®) is a different type of hormone therapy. It is usually offered to men with advanced prostate cancer whose cancer does not respond to other treatments. It is taken as tablets rather than injections.

Like other hormone treatments, it works by stopping the body from producing testosterone, but differently from other treatments. Abiraterone treatment is not a cure, but it can help keep the cancer under control and help with some of your symptoms.

If you choose to take abiraterone, you will also have to take steroid tablets. Taking steroids in combination with abiraterone will lower your chances of having side effects ofthe treatment.



Radiotherapy uses high energy x-ray beams (radiation) to destroy cancer cells. There are two different types of radiotherapy:
1. external beam radiotherapy
2. " data-gt-translate-attributes="[{">brachytherapy

Radiotherapy treatment is painless, but there are side effects caused by both types of treatment that may cause you problems. Your doctor will discuss your options and the potential side effects with you.

External beam radiotherapy
External beam radiotherapy uses a machine, called a linear accelerator, or LINAC, to give the radiation treatment from the outside of the body. Using the machine, the radiographer can direct the treatment to an exact point on your body. The aim is to destroy the cancer cells inside your body without damaging healthy tissue or organs. External beam therapy is often given in addition to other prostate cancer treatments, particularly hormone treatments (also called Androgen Deprivation Therapy or ADT).

Radiographer: External beam therapy is given by a trained therapeutic radiographer. Therapeutic radiographers specialise in treating cancer using radiotherapy techniques.

Before you have external beam radiotherapy, you will need a CT scan. The results will help the radiographer work out the exact point and dose of radiotherapy. A permanent mark will be made on your skin to ensure the radiation beam is directed to the same position at every treatment session.

CT scan: A CT scan uses x-rays taken at different angles to a 3D image of the inside of your body.


Chemotherapy is usually offered to men who have been diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer and are fit enough to tolerate the treatment. Chemotherapy is not a cure, but it can help keep the cancer under control.

Common chemotherapy drugs include:
1. Docetaxel
2. Cabazitaxel

Chemotherapy is a powerful medication that destroys cancer cells in the body. It is given directly into your bloodstream through a vein. The drug travels around your whole body, killing any cancer cells it finds. Sometimes healthy cells can also get damaged during treatment.

Chemotherapy can cause various unpleasant side effects. Each man reacts differently to the treatment but choosing to have chemotherapy is not an easy decision. Take your time discussing the potential side effects and benefits with your doctor, as well as your family.

Other treatments

High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)

High intensity focused Use of sound waves to create an image of the body’s inner workings." data-gt-translate-attributes="[{">ultrasound, or HIFU, uses ultrasound beams to generate heat, destroying areas of the prostate containing cancer cells. It is usually only given to men with early-stage prostate cancer.

The treatment can be given to the whole prostate if you have several tumours or given to a small area of the prostate. Both methods are done under a general anaesthetic or a spinal anaesthetic.

During the procedure, an ultrasound probe is gently passed into the back passage (rectum). The probe is surrounded by a cooling balloon to protect your back passage from the heat. As well as generating heat, the probe also produces ultrasound images of the prostate. This helps your doctor see the tumour(s) more clearly.

HIFU is a specialised technique and is not available in all hospitals. In some countries, HIFU may be available as part of a clinical trial.

Early-stage prostate cancer: Early stage cancer means your cancer is Stage 1 or Stage 2. This means the tumour is contained, or “localised” in your prostate.

General anaesthetic: A general anaesthetic is a controlled way of forcing you to fall asleep, so you are unaware of the procedure being done.

Spinal anaesthetic: A spinal anaesthetic numbs the lower half of your body, so you will not be able to feel anything during the procedure.


Cryotherapy involves having thin needles inserted into the prostate through the skin between the testicles and the back passage (rectum). Once in place, gas is passed through the needles and freezes the tumour(s), destroying the cancer cells inside. It is usually only given to men with early-stage prostate cancer.

The treatment can be given to the whole prostate if you have several tumours or given to a small area of the prostate. Both methods are done under a general anaesthetic or a spinal anaesthetic.

During the procedure, an ultrasound probe is gently passed into the back passage. The probe produces ultrasound images of the prostate to help your doctor see the tumour(s) more clearly and make sure the needles are inserted correctly.

Cryotherapy is a specialised technique and is not available in all hospitals. In some countries, cryotherapy may be available as part of a clinical trial.


Living with prostate cancer

Prostate Cancer

About Prostate Cancer

Risks and Symptoms



What is it like living with prostate cancer?

Living with prostate cancer can affect your everyday life, work, and relationships. You may experience side effects from treatment, even when the treatment has finished, which can affect your physical health. You may also be worried about your cancer coming back, which can greatly impact your mental health.

It is important to know that you are not alone. Talk to your doctor about local support groups or counselling services that may be helpful to you and your loved ones.

Physical and emotional effects

Extreme tiredness
Extreme tiredness, or fatigue, is very common in men with prostate cancer and can affect everyday tasks, social activities, sleep, and overall concentration.
If you are feeling fatigued, you should not drive.

Some men cope better with fatigue than others. If you are usually active, you may feel frustrated by an extreme lack of energy. These feelings are normal. Sometimes small changes to help improve your fatigue can help you feel in control of your cancer.

Leaking urine
If you have had surgery to treat your prostate cancer, then you may find you leak urine. This is entirely normal. Some men find they only leak a little, and some men find they leak a lot. For most men, the leaking lessens over time.

Leaking urine can feel embarrassing, but there are products you may find helpful. Incontinence pads line your underwear and absorb any leaking urine. They are discrete, so no one will know it is there.

Talk to your doctor about other treatments and products that may be helpful to you.

Difficulty passing urine
If you are having difficulty passing urine, it may be because your tumour is causing your prostate to press against the urethra. Your doctor may recommend medication or an operation to remove part of your prostate, called a trans-urethral resection of the prostate, or TURP. This operation will not cure your cancer but will help you pass urine much more easily.

Urethra: The urethra is the tube that empties urine from the bladder.

Sex and relationships
Being diagnosed with prostate cancer can affect your desire for sex. You might feel down, angry, or stressed, and these emotions can change your feelings about sex.

Some treatment can damage the nerves and blood supply to the penis, making it difficult to get or keep an erection, called erectile dysfunction. If you have had hormone therapy, this can also affect your desire for sex.

If you have a partner, talking about sex and how you are dealing with your cancer can help. It can be difficult talking about sex, but your doctor can help you get treatment and support.

Being told you have cancer can be a big shock, even if you had prepared yourself for the possibility of your tests being positive. Advances in science, medicine, and technology mean that many people are cured of cancer or live with it for many years. Despite this, a cancer diagnosis can cause different fears and emotions for you and your loved ones.

Living with prostate cancer can affect your everyday life, work, and relationships. If you are struggling to cope, try not to hide your emotions. Talk to your family and friends.

If you think speaking to a professional might help, ask your doctor for the details of local counselling services to get you the help you need.

Hormone changes
Testosterone is mainly made by the testicles and controls how the prostate works. Hormone therapy lowers the amount of testosterone in your body, which can affect your overall mood, including your desire for sex. You may feel tearful or angry, or just not your usual self. These feelings are normal and can be caused by hormone therapy.

Practical issues

Will I be able to work?
For some men, returning to work helps them get back to everyday life. But not everyone can continue working. You may decide to work part-time or take early retirement. There is no right or wrong answer.

You may need to take time off work, depending on the treatment options offered to you. You may also need to take extra breaks at work, particularly if you are feeling exhausted.

You might find it helpful to look at your company policies and employee handbook or speak to the Human Resources department at your workplace for more advice.

Will I be able to travel?
If you drive, you need to be very careful about how your treatment is affecting you. Do not drive if you are tired or do not feel well. If you plan to travel abroad, having cancer can affect where you go and how long you go away. Having cancer should not stop you from travelling. Still, it may affect travel insurance, car hire insurance, what you need to take with you, and the activities you do while you are away.

Palliative care

If you have advanced prostate cancer, you may hear the term supportive, or palliative, care. The focus of palliative care is to manage any pain you have and help find ways of coping with distressing symptoms. It also provides support for your family and for people looking after you.

Palliative care is not just for men in the final stages of their life, but it does include support to help you prepare for this. Various professionals will be on hand to help manage your symptoms and offer you and your family the emotional and practical support you need. The type of professionals and services available to you will depend on your needs and your local area.


Recurrence of prostate cancer

What happens if the cancer comes back?

It can be extremely difficult to find out that your cancer has come back. All of the thoughts and feelings you had when you were first diagnosed can come back too. These feelings and fears may even be stronger than before. Some men find that using the same coping mechanisms they did during their first cancer diagnosis helps them deal with another cancer diagnosis.

For many men, even when the cancer comes back after treatment, it may still be slow-growing, and they continue to live long and active lives. Your doctor will discuss your treatment options with you.

If your cancer has come back, you may hear it called “recurrence,” as well as other terms like local, locally-advanced, regional, distant, or metastasis. These terms can feel very overwhelming.

Local recurrence
The new tumour is in the prostate again. The cancer has not spread to other parts of the body. If you have local recurrence, you might be offered further treatment to get rid of the cancer again.

Regional or locally-advanced recurrence
The cancer has spread to the area just outside the prostate, but it has not spread to other parts of the body. You might be offered further treatment to get rid of the cancer again.

Distant or metastatic recurrence
The cancer has spread, or “metastasised,” to other parts of your body. There may also be cancer cells in your blood or bones. Treatment can no longer cure the cancer.

Hearing that your cancer cannot be cured is distressing and can be a shock. There still may be treatments to help control the spread of the cancer cells, such as hormone therapy or chemotherapy.

Your doctor may start talking to you about supportive or palliative care. The focus of palliative care is to manage any pain you have and help find ways of coping with distressing symptoms. Palliative care is not just for men in the final stages of their life. Men with metastatic recurrence may receive palliative care for many months or years.